Published on May 30, 2023, 
Book chapter in Fatma Müge Göçek & Gamze Evcimen eds. (2022) Handbook on Sociology and the Middle East, London: IB Tauris.
This chapter aims to discuss the root causes of radicalization among Turkish-origin youth residing in Europe, especially Germany. The time span that will be covered in the chapter will be mainly the last two decades as ethno-cultural and religious-based radicalization has become prevalent since the September 11, 2001. Based on the desk research as well as the initial findings of an ongoing European Research Council Advanced Grant study held in Germany, France, Belgium, and the Netherlands (Islam-ophob-ism, Grant Agreement No. 785934) , this chapter delineates the ways in which self-identified young Muslims of Turkish origin react to the detrimental effects of globalization, modernization, deindustrialization, institutional discrimination, ambiguity, insecurity, and anomy. Hence, the term radicalization will be used in a rather different way from its current usage by different political, academic, and media circles that perceives it with a rather negative connotation.